عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Study has shown that the soil available-P content in 71.8% of the agricultural lands in Iran falls below 15 mg. kg-1. Moreover, excessive use of P-fertilizers in calcareous soils not only increases costs but also leads to P-accumulation and reduced uptake of micronutrients, especially Zinc, to pose serious threats to public health. Generally, only a small percentage (15‒20%) of P-fertilizers used each year may be absorbed by plants while the remaining portion precipitates to increase soil total-P in lands with high pH levels. This process can cause environmental problems in areas close to lakes or those near surface waters used to supply drinking water. These observations warrant the quest for indicators that address both plant requirements and adverse environmental effect. It is worth noting that P is far more easily released in calcareous soils than in acidic ones because the bond between phosphate ions and calcium is by five times weaker than that between phosphate ions and iron or aluminum. It may, therefore, be concluded that application of P fertilizers should be based on local soil analysis and that P fertilizers should be recommended in soils whose available phosphorus concentration is below a critical level. Thus, such appropriate practices as applying P- fertilizers with due consideration of soil analysis results, increasing soil organic matter, and using P solubilizing bio-fertilizers may be recommended in order not only to enhance uptake of soil non-available P but to meet plant requirements, optimize fertilizer consumption, and prevent environmental hazards as well.